Astronaut Steven Swanson tending to the Veggie garden on the International Space Station. Image credit: NASA
If you’re currently tending lettuce plants, then you have something in common with the crew on board the International Space Station (ISS). They’re testing NASA’s new Vegetable Production System – affectionately known as ‘Veggie’. At 11.5 inches by 14.5 inches, Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber to have been blasted into space, and was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp.
Veggie was delivered to the ISS onboard the dragon capsule of SpaceX-3 in April, and installed in the Columbus module at the beginning of May. It has red and blue LEDs to supply the plants with the light they need for growth; it also has green LEDs that the astronauts can turn on to give white illumination, so that the plants don’t look funny colours.
Veggie’s first experiment, Veg-01, is mainly a hardware validation test to check everything is working properly. It has been ‘planted’ with six ‘pillows’ – each one contains the growing medium, a controlled-release fertiliser and calcined clay to improve aeration and plant growth. Water is supplied via a root mat, and wicks for the plants (which also help ensure they grow the right way up in microgravity!).
Veg-01 will be growing ‘Outredgeous‘ romaine lettuce, a very red lettuce that will be familiar to US gardeners, but which has only recently become available in the UK. An astronaut will thin the seedlings down to one plant per pillow, and the experiment lasts for 28 days. Photos will be taken each week, and microbial samples will be taken as well. At the end of the 28 days, the lettuce will be harvested and frozen and stored until it can be returned to Earth on SpaceX-4 in August.
The lettuce harvest will be analysed on Earth to ensure that it’s safe to eat. If so then a second set of pillows can be started on the ISS, with the crew able to tuck into homegrown lettuce 28 days later. While they’re waiting to hear whether Veggie produces edible plants, they have some pillows sown with ‘Profusion’ Zinnias to brighten the place up.
As well as proving that edible vegetables can be produced in space, and that the Veggie system works, it is hoped that the astronauts will enjoy tending their garden – which will also make it easier for them to mark the passage of time. A source of fresh food would also be very welcome – fresh produce is eaten almost as soon as it arrives in every cargo run, leaving long-life rations to provide the bulk of astronaut cuisine.
Crops tested in VEGGIE plant pillows include lettuce, Swiss chard, radishes, Chinese cabbage and peas. Image credit: NASA
A control experiment is taking place on Earth, so that proper plant science can be done with Veggie’s results. An Earth-bound Veggie has already grown a range of crops – including lettuce, Swiss chard, radishes, Chinese cabbage and peas.
Have you grown Outredgeous lettuce? Is is a variety worthy of being grown in space?
I am submitting this to VP’s Show of Hands Chelsea Fringe project, although I think she might have trouble marking these gardening hands on her map 😉
If you’d like to know more about how humans carry useful plants across the world (and beyond it!) then check out my latest book – Jade Pearls and Alien Eyeballs – which includes a potted history of plant hunting as well as interviews with gardeners trying to grow edible plants outside of their native habitat.